An artificial organ that mimics a real liver can test medications, predicting a poor response from living organs.
The human “liver on a chip” is liver cells grown on a membrane along with several types of frame cells. An artificial liver contains structures resembling bile ducts. Also, the laboratory liver is able to respond to various drugs like a real organ, which allows scientists to predict the reactions of human liver cells to drugs.
At the same time, artificial liver is much more effective than animal tests. Rats, dogs, and other animals are often used to test drugs for toxicity to humans, but a previous study showed that animal tests only identify 71% of drug toxicity. An artificial liver captures adverse reactions that animal tests may miss.
Tests of the new development have already shown that some drugs that were toxic to dogs and rats may be safe for humans. The development of one experimental compound, called JNJ-2, was discontinued because the drug caused liver fibrosis or scarring in rats. However, a chip that mimics the human liver suggests that future medicine may be safe for humans.
Experts at pharmaceutical company Abbott Laboratories and a team of scientists from the University of Missouri conducted a study and revealed a new strain of HIV. It was discovered in three Congo residents, according to The Wall Street Journal.
This is the first new strain of the virus in 20 years. It was decided to assign it to group M, which is the most common, and the HIV-1 species and subtype L.
It is noted that this subtype of HIV is closer to viruses that were one of the first to be detected by mankind than to those variations that were selected between 1983 and 1990.
Specialists also noticed that a blood test, in which a new strain was discovered, was taken back in 2001.
Scientists believe that this discovery did not bring medicine closer to creating a cure for the virus, but shed light on understanding some of the mechanisms of evolution and spread of HIV.